Water treatment

Water treatment describes those processes used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use. These can include use as drinking water, industrial processes, medical and many other uses. The goal of all water treatment process is to remove existing contaminants in the water, or reduce the concentration of such contaminants so the water becomes fit for its desired end-use. One such use is returning water that has been used back into the natural environment without adverse ecological impact. The processes involved in treating water for drinking purpose may be solids separation using physical processes such as settling and filtration, and chemical processes such as disinfection and coagulation. In smaller systems with good raw water sources, filtration and disinfection will make the water safe for human consumption. Filtration, Ion exchange, disinfection etc are some common processes employed in water treatment.

Membrane Technologies

With time, filtration technologies have advanced from constant pressure filtration to Micro, Ultra and nano levels. Advanced membrane technologies today can remove not only the pathogens, but also the harmful mineral traces from water.

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a membrane filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be "selective," this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as the solvent) to pass freely. Areas that have either no or limited surface water or groundwater may choose to desalinate seawater or brackish water to obtain drinking water. Reverse osmosis is the most common method of desalination.

Contact us for a detailed Test Report of your source water, and our experts will suggest the best treatment process for you.

Industrial Water Treatment

Industrial Water Treatment can be classified into the following categories:

  • Boiler water treatment
  • Cooling water treatment
  • Water treatment for the Food and Beverage Industry
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Water treatment is used to optimize most water-based industrial processes, such as: heating, cooling, processing, cleaning, and rinsing, so that operating costs and risks are reduced. Poor water treatment lets water interact with the surfaces of pipes and vessels which contain it. Steam boilers can scale up or corrode, and these deposits will mean more fuel is needed to heat the same amount of water. Cooling towers can also scale up and corrode, but left untreated, the warm, dirty water they can contain will encourage bacteria to grow, and Legionnaires' Disease can be the fatal consequence. Also, water treatment is used to improve the quality of water contacting the manufactured product e.g. semiconductors, and/or can be part of the product e.g. beverages, pharmaceuticals, etc. In these instances, poor water treatment can cause defective products. Domestic water can become unsafe to drink if proper hygiene measures are neglected.

    We are delighted to help you in this front. Please contact us for your requirement.

    Wastewater treatment processes

    Preliminary treatment: The objective of preliminary treatment is the removal of coarse solids and other large materials often found in raw wastewater. Removal of these materials is necessary to enhance the operation and maintenance of subsequent treatment units. Preliminary treatment operations typically include coarse screening, grit removal and, in some cases, comminution of large objects. In grit chambers, the velocity of the water through the chamber is maintained sufficiently high, or air is used, so as to prevent the settling of most organic solids. Grit removal is not included as a preliminary treatment step in most small wastewater treatment plants. Comminutors are sometimes adopted to supplement coarse screening and serve to reduce the size of large particles so that they will be removed in the form of a sludge in subsequent treatment processes.

    Primary treatment:The objective of primary treatment is the removal of settleable organic and inorganic solids by sedimentation, and the removal of materials that will float (scum) by skimming. Approximately 25 to 50% of the incoming biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 50 to 70% of the total suspended solids (SS), and 65% of the oil and grease are removed during primary treatment. Some organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and heavy metals associated with solids are also removed during primary sedimentation but colloidal and dissolved constituents are not affected. The effluent from primary sedimentation units is referred to as primary effluent.

    Secondary treatment:The objective of secondary treatment is the further treatment of the effluent from primary treatment to remove the residual organics and suspended solids. In most cases, secondary treatment follows primary treatment and involves the removal of biodegradable dissolved and colloidal organic matter using aerobic biological treatment processes. Aerobic biological treatment (see Box) is performed in the presence of oxygen by aerobic microorganisms (principally bacteria) that metabolize the organic matter in the wastewater, thereby producing more microorganisms and inorganic end-products (principally CO2, NH3, and H2O). Several aerobic biological processes are used for secondary treatment differing primarily in the manner in which oxygen is supplied to the microorganisms and in the rate at which organisms metabolize the organic matter.High-rate biological processes are characterized by relatively small reactor volumes and high concentrations of microorganisms compared with low rate processes. Consequently, the growth rate of new organisms is much greater in high-rate systems because of the well controlled environment. The microorganisms must be separated from the treated wastewater by sedimentation to produce clarified secondary effluent. The sedimentation tanks used in secondary treatment, often referred to as secondary clarifiers, operate in the same basic manner as the primary clarifiers described previously. The biological solids removed during secondary sedimentation, called secondary or biological sludge, are normally combined with primary sludge for sludge processing.

    Common technologies used in secondary treatment :

  • Anaerobic Treatment Methods:
  • In these methods, the organic loading in the incoming wastewaters is reduced by the action of Anaerobic Bacteria. Anaerobic treatments are highly energy efficient and can offer promising potential for massive reduction of organic loading in large scale plants. The disadvantage is that such processes can't bring the downstream BOD/COD levels to acceptably low values acceptable for Inland disposal.

    Examples for Anaerobic treatment methods are Septic tanks, UASB reactors, Imhoff tanks etc..

  • Aerobic Treatment Methods:
  • Here, the organic loading is reduced by Aerobic bacteria. These methods offer largely consistent and low organic loading levels in the output for Inland disposal, but they consume large amounts of power for satisfying their requirement of oxygen. These processes should follow effective sedimentation to remove settleable biosolids. Examples for Aerobic treatment methods are Activated Sludge Plants, MBBR, SAFF Reactors etc. MBBR or Moving Bed Bioreactors are the most popular in the building and construction industry today due to their relatively less area requirement, less complex operation and consistent results.

  • Tertiary and advanced treatment:
  • Tertiary treatments are used to polish the effluent to assure making it acceptable for the Pollution Control Board Norms. These include Sand and Activated Carbon filtration. A combination of secondary and tertiary treatment s can be reached by Membrane bioreactors. Also, Sequential Bioreactors (SBR) are gaining popularity in very large installations because of their reduced space requirement. But these also require complex operational procedures and more sophisticated instrumentation.

  • Disinfection:
  • The effluents are disinfected by contacting them with an oxidising agent, or in advanced plants-by the use of UV or such relatively expensive technologies. There are further complex processes which require treatment of certain industrial wastewaters containing high inorganic loading and colour.

    For detailed consultation and to determine what is the best solution for you, please Contact us.

    Swimming Pool Water Treatment

    Swimming pool water must be treated, in order to remain clear and clean, free from harmful substances, bacteria, viruses, algae and other pathogens and suitable for use by swimmers.

    Treatment steps: The water is first passed from swimming pools to a water purification unit. In the water purification plant, it will flow through a prefilter, which removes raw pollutions, such as hairs, plasters and leaves, from water. After that an optional flocculation is done. Flocculent causes smaller colloids to bind together. Colloids are visible floating particles of organic matter, such as skin tissue and textile fibers. This group of pollutants also concerns colloidal pollutants, such as saliva, soap remains, cosmetic products and skin fats. When these pollutants are abundant, they cause turbidity.

    Floating particles are removed from water in a sand filter. The sand filter is back flushed periodically. The water is recirculated after disinfection either by chlorination or other advanced methods. Inline chlorination is gaining popularity in developed countries where chlorine is generated from common salt.

    Aquatechnics provides swimming pool solutions through a variety of globally acclaimed suppliers like Astral Pool, Haywards and Pentair products of US origin. There are other manufacturers from the D&E world who offer slightly cheaper products. Both ways, we offer products at different price points where it offers customer value. Contact us. for assistance.

    Water treatment for Fountains and Water features

    A fountain is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air either to supply drinking water or for decorative or dramatic effect. In modern fountains a water filter, typically a sand media filter, removes particles from the water—this filter requires its own pump to force water through it and plumbing to remove the water from the pool to the filter and then back to the pool. The water needs chlorination or anti-algal treatment. Fountains can be ideal spreaders of micro-organisms such as bacteria or in the worst case Legionella. The pumps, filter, electrical switch box and plumbing controls are often housed in a "plant room". Low-voltage lighting is used to minimize electrical hazards. Lighting is often submerged and must be suitably designed.

    Aquatechnics supplies quality accessories and equipments for fountains and water features.Request a quote Request a quote if you need a fountain or water feature assistance.

    Water Management

    Water management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources. In an ideal world. water management planning has regard to all the competing demands for water and seeks to allocate water on an equitable basis to satisfy all uses and demands. Even if that is rarely possible to ideally practice, the term and technologies are gaining increased acceptance in the construction of Green buildings, which are considered to be the next big thing in the wellness revolution in the construction industry. On a domestic front, the terms remind us of any efficient methods of saving water and saving energy used in the plumbing loop.

    A really potent water management practice increasingly accepted in our country is Rainwater harvesting. Aquatechnics, as a company has a religious interest towards water saving, as we have for water safety. Contact us. for water management solutions that are appropriate to you.